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Chaos Theoryis a very important area of mathematics which canexplain a lot of what we see in the real world. Apendulum with one massis relativelyeasyto explain mathematically, and itbehaves nicely. However if you putanother massin there, itbehaves chaotically. Technically, this means that if you change the starting positions onlyslightly, the state of the system a short time later can changedrastically. Theweather is chaotic- a small error in measuring it today could be the difference between rain and no rain in a weeks days time. Watch thesetwo pendulum systems quickly diverge, though they both start off with nearly the same settings. [more] [code]In 1975 Mandelbrot published The Fractal Geometry of Nature, which became a classic of chaos theory.

Cool name, awesome area of math.